Subject-verb concord

The relation between subject and verb

Subject-verb concord

Concord refers to an agreement between two grammatical units. So, subject-verb concord refers to the agreement of the subject and the verb. The subject of a sentence is a noun, pronoun, group of nouns or a group of words acting as a noun. The subject may be plural or singular. If it is a pronoun, the subject may be first, second or third person.
If the subject is plural the verb must be plural.
If the subject is a pronoun, the verb must be in the same person as the pronoun.
Examples :
- The brothers are here.
- He loves art.

There are different rules of subject-verb concord. Let us take a look at what they are. In the case of pronouns, the third person singular (he, she, it) takes singular verbs in all tenses.
Examples :
- He works very hard.
- She has gone to London.

The rules for subject-verb concord of persons are the following :
- The first person plural “we” takes a plural verb in all tenses.
- The second “you” takes a plural verb in all tenses, even when it is singular.
- The third person plural “they” takes a plural verb in all tenses.
Examples :
- We ate our meal.
- We laeve today.
- You are coming with us.
- They mer on the beach.
- They wander the streets at night.

There is a different rule however, for first person singular “I”. “I” takes a singular verb with “am”, “am going” and “was” but takes a plural verb when we say “I go” or “I have gone”.
Examples :
- I am going to the market.
- I have gone to the market.

Where the sentence begins with “there”, the verb must agree with the real subject that follows it.
Examples :
- There is no way out.
- There are only two chairs left.

Nouns denoting food, clothing, furniture and stationery are singular. So they take a singular verb. And when we say, “a pair of …” we use a singular verb.
Examples :
- The furniture is old.
- A pair of black pants is essential.

When used for quantity, “a lot of”, “plenty of” take a singular verb. However, when quantity is given, both these take a plural verb. “News” is always in the singular.
Examples :
- A lot of time has been wasted.
- Plenty of kids are going for the picnic.
- This is great news!

If there are two subjects in a sentence, the verb will be plural. If the two subjects express one idea, then they take the singular verb. And if the subject and verb are separated by a group of words, the verb must agree with the subject.
Examples :
- Randa and Debby are best friends.
- Dal and rice is my staple meal.
- The boy with the pile of books is my little brother.

When the name of a country, a book or a film is denoted in a plural noun, it still takes a singular verb.
Collective nouns takes singular or plural nouns depending on their use in the sentence. Nouns like herd, class, crowd, etc. which refer to a group as a whole usually take a singular verb.
Nouns like people, police and cattle which refer to individuals of a group are always in the plural.
Examples :
- Chronicles of Narnia is my favourite movie.
- The crows was out of control.
- The cattle are grazing in the meadow.

Writing a paragraph using an outline

Learn to write a paragraph on a given topic or outline

Writing a paragraph using an outline

My pet
pet – goldfish – Goldie – colour – golden – orange – love my pet – beautiful fins – long tail – playful – naughty – jumps when fed – does not like to be dirty – change water twice a week.

My pet Goldie
I have a pet goldfish called Goldie. It is golden orange in colour. It has beautiful fins and a long tail. Goldie is very playful and naughty. It jumps up in the bowl when I feed it. It eats fish food. It does not like to be dirty and stops swimming when the water gets dirty. I clean it by changing the water in the bowl twice a week. I love my pet very much.

 

Learning Points

A paragraph is a group of sentences about a subject or part of the same subject. A paragraph is also called a short composition and it should start with the subject. It should not have more than eight to ten sentences. A composition may have mane paragraphs.
Before you begin writing a paragraph, you should first stop and think about the subject you are writing about. Let’s take a pet by way of example, and here are some questions you may ask yourself:
- Who is your pet?
- What is its name?
- What do you know about its habits?
- What are the things that you like or dislike about it?
- How do you take care of your pet?
To make a paragraph, write down all the ideas and points you have in one or two words to form a rough outline.
The first sentence of the paragraph should introduce the subject and tell the reader what the paragraph is all about.

The paragraph should be short (Do not have more than eight to ten sentences). To keep your paragraph short, you must not unnecessarily repeat the points or sentences.
Don’t forget to end the paragraph with a sentence that sums up the subject.

Appropriate prepositions

Grammar Lesson : Appropriate prepositions

Appropriate prepositions

A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun that shows its relation to another word in a sentence. Sometimes certain verbs, nouns and adjectives are followed by certain prepositions. These prepositions are known as appropriate prepositions. Without these appropriate prepositions, sentences will not make sense.
Let us take a look at some verbs and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : agree to, believe in, blame for, charge with, congratulate on, depend on, depend upon, insist on, part from, accept to, appoint to, object to, prefer to, abstain from, recover from, comply with, …
Let us take a look at some nouns and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : confidence in, limit to, objection to, opportunity for, pity for, alliance with, assurance of, allegiance to, obedience to, disgrace to, deliverance from, respite from, …
Let us take a look at some adjectives and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : ashamed of, blind to, charitable to, charitable towards, deaf to, different from, grateful to, grateful for, parallel to, proud of, acceptable to, accustomed to, adjacent to, accomplished in, acquainted with, conscious of, …
Examples :
- He stood under the tree.
- I do not believe in you.
- We agree to participate in the event.
- Hellen was recovered from malaria.
- This is an opportunity for growth.
- We have assurance of their continued support.
- Always have confidence in yourself.
- The boys are accustomed to loud music.
- I am grateful for your help.
- This is different from other books.

Thus, a noun, a verb or an adjective sometimes takes another appropriate preposition when it is placed in a different context.
Examples :
- I differ with you on this matter. You thoughts differ from mine.
- She does not have influence with the Director. He has a tremendous influence on her.
- Jim was proud of his son. They were proud to announce the winner.

Writing a personal letter

Friendly letter

Writing a personal letter

Writing Example

B/16 Tower street
Frosty Colony, Paris
France, 75001
December 28, 2013

Dear grandma,
I hope you are doing well. I missed you for my birthday party last week. I want to thank you for the beautiful sweater you sent me for my birthday. When I received it in the mail last week, I almost squealed in excitement.
Thank you for knitting such a pretty blue sweater for me. It is soft and keeps me warm at night, and it is in my favourite colour too! I will show it to all my friends once I go to school after the holidays.
I hope to come and visit you very soon, Grandma. I’m eagerly waiting to meet you.

Yours lovingly,
Sandy

 

Learning Points

A letter is a written or typed message addressed to a single person or a group of people. Writing letters is a meaningful way of communicating and expressing your thoughts and feelings to others. Moreover, letters can be preserved and read anytime in future. Reading such letters can bring back memories of special people or important events.
Letters can be classified into many kinds on the basis of their purpose. Letters can be friendly or formal. A friendly or personal letter is usually addressed to people you know personally or to your loved ones. On the other hand, a formal or business letter is addressed to people you do not know, people you have never met, or people who are in authority.
The address of the sender, or the person writing the letter, is written in the upper right-hand corner of the page, and can extend to two or more lines. After the last line of the address, the date on which the sender is writing the letter is included. The date can be written in full using numbers and words (December 28, 2013), or using numbers only (12/28/2013). And when writing a personal letter to a parent, close relative, or friend, whom you know very well, and who knows your address, you can omit writing the address, and only mention the date.
The salutation or greeting is written in the left-hand corner after leaving a couple of lines below the heading. The greeting usually begins with the word “Dear” before the name of the receiver or the person being written to. A comma is used after the greeting.
The body or message of the personal letter includes the main purpose of writing the letter and the message the writer wishes to convey. It includes one or more paragraphs : The first paragraph of the body usually introduces the main message and states the reason of writing the letter; The subscription or closing phrase, which is added in the lower right-hand corner of the page, after the body, and in line with the address. The first word of the subscription begins with a capital letter. Let’s see some commonly used endings : Yours lovingly, Yours truly, With love, Your friend, …
The signature refers to the name of the sender or the person writing the letter. It’s written below the closing.
A letter can be sent to the receiver either by hand or it can mailed or posted. A letter needs to be sent in an envelope. The envelope must include the name and address of the receiver in the center, the name and address of the sender in the lower left-hand corner and the postal stamp in the upper right-hand corner. The name and the title of the receiver is written on the first line, followed by the address. The receiver’s address helps the postman deliver the letter to the right person. In addition, using the sender’s address, the letter can be returned to the sender if it is lost or sent to the incorrect address.

Writing a summary

Summarizing

Writing a summary

Writing Example

The sun
The sun forms a very important part of the solar system. It accounts for 98% of the total mass of the solar system. The sun is not solid like the earth. Instead, it is composed of plasma. As a result, the sun rotates faster at its poles. It takes about 25 days to complete one rotation at the equator and 33 days to complete one rotation at the poles. The major elements that constitute the sun are hydrogen and helium. It is also composed of other elements like iron, nickel and oxygen.
The visible surface of the sun is called the photosphere. It heats up to a temperature of about 6000 kelvin. The core of the sun, however, has a temperature exceeding 13 million kelvin. The sun also has a strong magnetic field, this is responsible for effects such as sun spot, solar flares, etc.
The sun is a life-force for earth. The light from the sun is essential for all living things. It ads in the process photosynthesis for plants. It also helps in the production of vitamin D. However, excessive exposure to sunlight can create serious damage in the form of sunburn, etc.
The sun has also been an important cultural symbol throughout history. The ancient Egyptian God Ra, for example, was considered the God of the sun.


Facts about the sun
The sun has an important place in the solar system. The sun rotates at a faster speed at its equator. The major elements that constitute the sun are hydrogen and helium. The core of the sun is hotter than the photosphere and creates effects like solar flares and sun sports. The sun aids in processes like photosynthesis and formation of vitamin D. However, it also has harmful effects such as sunburn and cancer. The sun is also a cultural symbol.

Learning Points

Summarizing is an important studying skill. It is a shortened version of a passage written in one’s own words.
A summary always covers the essential points of the original passage. It presents large chunks of information in short, cohesive sentences.
A summary can be used to sum up information, present information concisely, state the main or essential points without any detailed explanations, refer to a body of work and give examples of several points of view on one subject.
Here are the guidelines for summarizing a passage :
- Read the passage.
- Make a note of keywords, main points or arguments and topic sentences.
- Try to form a brief outline of the passage.
- Use the outline to form a summary of the passage.
- However, use your own language to convy the ideas.
- Use some keywords in the summary and accordingly give a title for the summary.
- Avoid technical language. Write in simple and understandable English.
- The summary must be objective and written in third person.
- Illustrations, examples and quotations can be omitted.
- Replace long phrases with single words and use participal clauses instead of full clauses.
- Write a rough draft, edit it and adjust the length.
- Follow the original organization of the passage.
- Compare the summary to the original passage for accuracy.
- Check the draft for spelling mistakes, punctuation, grammatical errors.
- Form a fair draft of the summary.