Adverb clause

Adverb clause

Adverb clause

A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. It forms part of a sentence. If a clause makes sense in itself, it is called the main clause or the principal clause of that sentence. If it is dependent on another clause to complete its meaning, it is called the subordinate clause. Remember there can be only one main or principal clause, the word or words that join a subordinate clause with the principal clause are called subordinating conjunctions. There are three types of subordinate clauses : noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverb clauses.
Let’s learn in detail about adverb clauses. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that does the work of an adverb in a sentence. It can modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb in the principal clause.
Adverb clauses can be of different types. Let us look in detail at the types of adverb clauses.

An adverb clause of time shows the time when an action takes place. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : when, while, before, after, since, as, whenever, as long as, as soon as, no sooner than, till, until, …
Examples :
- They met while we were in class.
- We woke up when the birds chirped.
- I left before he came.
- I will wait till he gets back.

An adverb clause of place shows the place where an action takes place. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : where, wherever, whence, whither, …
Examples :
- He lives where it rains a lot.
- I will come to visit you wherever you live, .

An adverb clause of reason shows why an action takes place. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : because, since, as, that, …
Examples :
- He was sad because he missed Rihanna concert.
- She is so happy that her cousins have come.

An adverb clause of comparison indicates a comparison between people or things. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : than, no less than, as, …
Examples :
- She is smarter than she looks.
- Shah Rukh Khan is as tough as he is sensitive.

An adverb clause of purpose is used when the purpose of an action is to be described. It can be used when the person it refers to is different from the subject of the principal clause and it is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : so, that, in order that, lest, …
An adverb clause of purpose can also be used when the original subject is repeated in the subordinate clause.
Examples :
- He met Shakira there so that Alice wouldn’t know.
- He tried his best that he might get in.
- Work hard lest you should fail.

An adverb clause of result tells us the result of something. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : so that, such that, …
Usually, the conjunctions are placed separately with one word appearing in the principal clause and the other appearing in the adverb clause. Sometimes the words “so that” and “such that” come together. “So” can be used before “many” and “much” when they are followed by nouns.
Examples :
- The winds were so strong that we could not set sail.
- Eat your food quickly so that you can go to sleep.
- There were so many choices that I got confused.
- We had no much time on our hands that we went out shopping.

An adverb clause of concession implies that something surprising is conveyed in the principal clause when compared to what is said in the subordinate clause. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : although, though, even if, however, whether, …
Adverb clause of concession that make a contrast with something said in the principal clause are called adverb clauses of contrast.
Examples :
- Although he worked hard, his project was not selected.
- Though I like Cristiano Ronaldo, I prefer Lionel Messi.

An adverb clause of manner shows the manner in which an action is performed. It is kind of comparative clause as it indicates comparison of manner. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : as, as .. so, as if, as though, in the way that, how, …
If “as + clause” appears in the first sentence, then the principal clause begins with “so”.
Examples :
- Do as I tell you.
- As he has started, so will he finish.

An adverb clause of extent indicates the degree to which an action is done. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : as .. as, the .. the, …
If “as + clause” appears in the first sentence, then the principal clause begins with “so”.
Examples :
- They tried as much as they could.
- The more you have, the more you want.

An adverb clause of conditions states the conditions or circumstances for something to happen. It is the principal clause that states what will happen if the conditions are fulfilled. It is introduced by the subordinating conjunctions : if, unless, provided, provided that, as long as, whether, in case, on condition, …
The conjunction “if” can be used to convey a variety of meanings : To talk about the future, to talk about things that are not real or likely to happen at the moment, to talk about things that did not happen and when there are two possibilities of expression.
“Unless” is always used to convey a negative condition.
Examples :
- You can go provided you finish your homework.
- If I get a holiday, we can go boating on Sunday.
- If I were famous, I would live in Hollywood!
- If you had told me, I would have left immediately.
- If you are late, meet me at the theatre.
- Unless you do the dishes, you can’t watch TV.

Shopping in English

Useful expressions related to shopping

Shopping in English

What you ask
- Can you recommend a good antique / card / corner / pet  shop?
- Is there a pharmacy / bakery / bookshop / confectioner in the area?
- Where can I get teddy bear / brush / sweets/ baby food?
- Where’s the nearest shopping centre / supermarket/ mall / beauty centre?
- What time do you open / close, please?
- Are you open on Saturdays?
- Could you help me here , please?
- Could you tell me where the shoes department / music department / Paris gallery is?
- Excuse me, I’m looking for a toothbrush sanitizer / Christmas cactus / French perfume.
- Is there somewhere I can try this on, please?
- Does it suit me?
- Do you have this in a larger / smaller size, please?
- Do you have this in red / blue /  a different colour, please?
- What does this calendar cost?
- Excuse me Sir, how much is this car seat cover?
- What is the price of a stamp?
- Do you take credit cards / debit cards / American express?
- Does it have a warranty / guarantee?
- Can I pay by cheque?
- Could I have a VAT receipt, please?

What you hear
- There’s a very good gift shop / restaurant / hotel  just around the corner.
- The best motorcycle shop is in the shopping centre.
- The nearest one is a few kilometres away.
- We’re closed at lunchtime, between 12am and 2pm.
- We’re open from 8am till 5pm, Monday to Friday.
- We’re open 24/7 from Monday to Friday.
- It’s too long / short.
- Did you find what you were looking for?
- The ladies / gents changing rooms are over there.
- The fitting rooms are over there.
- You can bring it back and get a refund if you keep the receipt.
- Buy three for the price of two.
- That is 45 Euros altogether.
- We take all the major credit cards.
- We only accept cheques with a cheque card.
- We only accept cash.
- We’re offering 6 months’ free credit with no deposit.

How to be assertive!

some useful words and expressions for being assertive

How to be assertive!

When was the last time you had to say “no” to someone? Who were you talking to? What were you talking about? Are you good at letting people know what you want? Give examples? Are you good at expressing your feelings? Give examples. What’s the best way to deal with people who are trying to pressurise you?

Being assertive
- I’m afraid I can’t do that.
- I’d rather not do it.
- I don’t feel like going today.
- I’d prefer not to have that one.
- Thanks, but I’d rather not do that.
- I don’t want to be associated with that.
- I’m not prepared to support that idea.
- I can’t make that a priority right now.
Being insistent
- I demand a refund .
- I ins ist that you get the manager.
- I know you’d like me to go, but I can’t.
- I’m sorry but 2pm won’t work for me.
- This one isn’t the one I was looking for.
- I won’t leave until I speak to the manager.
- I really need to change the t ime of the meeting.
- You’re going to have to respect my point of view.
Saying no
- Thanks, but no thanks.
- No, not at the moment.
- I’m afraid I can’t do that.
- I’m sorry but I won’t do that.
- Thanks, but I’m not interested.
- I’m sorry but the answer is no.
- I’m driving so I don’t want to drink.
- I’m sorry but I’m not comfortable with that.
- Thanks for thinking of me, but I th ink I’ll pass this time.
The broken record
This is a technique that involves repeating something over and over again. For example:
A: Do you want the blue one?
B: No, I want the red one.
A: The blue one’s much better.
B: Well, I want the red one.
A: It’s much cheaper.
B: I’m sorry but I want the red one.
Expressing displeasure
- That was extremely offensive.
- I felt offended by your comment.
- I really don’t appreciate your tone of voice.
- It’s annoying when things like that happen.
- I’m sorry but I’m not comfortable with that.
- Please respect my wishes, even if you disagree with them.

How to become a descriptive writer

how to become a descriptive writer

How to become a descriptive writer

Writing Example

The forest during the hunting season

The sun was hovering at its zenith. It seemed to Alwan that it was not moving. It seemed fixed in the sky emitting scorching rays. He hunched his head down between his shoulders and continued on his way. The forest stretched ahead of him in the distance, shrouded in its customary silence. To someone looking down from the air, it appeared square, dense, sealed at the corners. Trees were scattered haphazardly throught. Stripped of their leaves, they sent their roots into the ground so that it appeared to the onlooker that they would never die. Some of their roots had been exposed by the action of the rain which fell from time to time. In one of the corners was an old mud-brick house. Alwan continued to slog slowly towards it until he arrived, and hurried towards him. She took the alms from his hands and they entered together. Alwan took off his sandals and stretched out his cracked feet in front of him, while Zohra began to empty out the alms. Bread was scarce and there was no sugar with it.
“Only a little today?” she asked him.
“Today is Sunday. People give alms on Friday.”
“Do you always wait till Friday?”
“Friday this year are not like Fridays were last year.”
She remained silent. Alwan laughed, then spoke to reassure her, “This year there will be buckets of rain. It will make the ground blossom of us.”
She was not reassured. She laughed at his words and said, “And we shall become rich in this world.”
He understood what she meant and kept quiet. He leant on his arm and his gaze wandered through the window. The air was shimmering in the sun. The birds on the branches of the trees were chattering subduedly. Alwan turned to his wife saying, “You are a good wife, Zohra.”
She paid no attention to his words. She asked him, as if she was expecting him to break the silence, “Did you bring any money?”
“No, perhaps tomorrow or after tomorrow. Don’t let it depress you.”
She turned towards the wall. He felt wretched. He bent his head to the ground and did not speak. A heavy silence descended, broken from time to time by the sounds of the birds. A great tumult arose outside, shattering the silence once and for all. The house shook as if an earthquake had struck it.
“The hunters,” Alwan said to his wife.
He went to the window and poked his head out. There was no sign of the birds. They had all fled and headed off in the direction of the sun. The forest was empty now. Alwan turned his head towards her and said, “The hunters respect nobody’s feelings.”
“Why don’t you learn hunting? That way you can become rich without waiting for rain and tilling the soil.”
He felt humiliated. Alwan was more than sixty years old, and hunting required strength and accuracy, skill and cunning. When Alwan even walked the length of a street, fatigue quickly got the better of him and he would sit down to take a rest. Sometimes he slept, then he woke up and continued on his way. He headed towards the window once more and leant out. The hunter was among the bare trees, rifle under his arm. He aimed it carefully, from a kneeling position. Alwan poked his head out, his hand still on the window-sill. He said to his wife, “The rifle is pointing towards the windows. If he fires a shot, it will hit the middle of the house and destroy it.”
“What a wonderful development that would be. What are you doing here? It would be better if you died. We are ore wretched than those birds.”
“We are not that generous. Life is valuable to God.”
“What is it worth? You can’t do anything. It is better for you to die.”
“At least I bring you some bread, and sometimes some sugar and some money.”
She looked at him with great anger. Through her eyes, he touched the ferocity of the hunter. “I want to lean out, but I am afraid that a pellet will hit me.”
“I will lean out instead if your life is that dear to you.”
She leant out of the window. The lunar was not far from the house. As she stood at the window, she said, “This birdshot can’t kill. If you are afraid of it, you will die without it hitting you.”
The trees cradled no new growth. When a wind blew, they did not emit any smell. The forest was colourless. The tall trees conversed loftily the sky and the sun. The birds returned as if nothing had happened, settling once again on the branches. Zohra returned to her place, and Alwan remained standing. The hunter aimed his rifle, then blasted at them indiscriminately. Alwan turned to his wife, “All creatures love life and do not want to die. Praise be to the Eternal. Even birds flee when surprised by birdshot.”
“….”
“But the hunter always pursues them. He does not leave them for a moment.”
“….”
“It is strange that although the hunters become more numerous, the birds multiply.”
“….”
“Perhaps the birds are more numerous. Yes indeed, they are more numerous.”
There was a great distance between him and his wife. She had flopped down like rubbish on an empty pavement. The hunter moved deftly under the bare tree. He tried not to make a sound. He was afraid that the birds would flee. He aimed his rifle. He gripped is carefully. He aimed at a flock that were clustered together. Alwan smiled. Oh the joy of the hunter! A tasty dinner every evening. He can eat the flesh of birds. He can roast it over a flame. The eyes of the hunter were transfixed like those of a cat which has lost consciousness. A dog burst through the wood. It barked. The birds left the trees and circled in the sky. The hunter sent a shot after them. The silence exploded. Alwan lowered his head until the sound of the explosion subsided, then stood firmly on his feet again. The birds returned to their places. The movement was repeated automatically. They make love in the sultry heat. They give birth. They multiply. Alwan felt a sexual pleasure. A sensuous thrill ran through his body. He looked at the body of his wife, then out of the trees. The hunter’s eyes were shining. His face flooded with disapointment. He sat under a tree. The tree stretched up like a long street without an end. Another dog broke through the forest. It barked. The hunter aimed the rifle at the dog. He fired.
The silence was broken. Alwan lowered his head then stood up. The flocks followed one another endlessly. He looked at the hunter and felt his ferocity. The hunter was under the tree and above him were the birds. A dog broke through the forest. Dogs are alike. Birds are alike. The hunter had grown tired; the heat of the sun was intense. Alwan looked out of the window for a long time. The window contained the bare forest. He grew tired of standing, so sat down and stretched out beside his wife. She felt him come, and woke up. She went towards the window. The hunter had grown tired. He put down his rifle and slipped it under his leg. He leant his back against a tree-trunk and closed his eyes. Silence reigned over the forest, broken by the languid sounds of the birds. Zohra looked into the corner of the house and saw a piece of dry bread. She remembered the dogs anda flood of compassion filled her eyes.

Learning Points

  • Learn from the expert Cristina how to become a descriptive writer  :

The -ing form

The -ing form

The -ing form

A verb is a word that denotes a certain action done by somebody or something. It is also called a doing word.  A verb is also used to describe the state or condition of a person or thing. A verb not only tells us about an action, it also tells us about the time of an action. The tense of a verb tells us the time of an action.
A very common way of changing the form of a verb is by adding -ing to it.
1- Form the -ing form of a verb by adding -ing to the verb.
2- For verbs that end in -e, we drop the final “e”, before adding -ing to the verb.
3- In the case of some verbs, we double the last letter before adding -ing to the verb. In these verbs, the letter before the final letter is a single vowel.

Examples :
- keep – keeping, do – doing, sing – singing.
- close – closing, move – moving, share – sharing.
- fit – fitting, pin – pinning, drop – dropping.

Let us see the uses of the -ing form :
1- The -ing form of a verb, along with a helping verb, is used to form the continuous tense. It tells us that the action is in progress. The form of the main verb remains the same. Only the helping verb changes with every sentence. So, we must look at the tense of the helping verb to find out the tense of the verb.
2- The -ing form of a verb is used as an adjective to express something more about a noun, without using a helping verb. The -ing form of verbs which perform the work of adjective are called present participles.

Examples :
- Morgan is drawing a sketch.
- She was working hard.
- The setting sun looked beautiful.
- He caught the running train.