The -ing form

The -ing form

The -ing form

A verb is a word that denotes a certain action done by somebody or something. It is also called a doing word.  A verb is also used to describe the state or condition of a person or thing. A verb not only tells us about an action, it also tells us about the time of an action. The tense of a verb tells us the time of an action.
A very common way of changing the form of a verb is by adding -ing to it.
1- Form the -ing form of a verb by adding -ing to the verb.
2- For verbs that end in -e, we drop the final “e”, before adding -ing to the verb.
3- In the case of some verbs, we double the last letter before adding -ing to the verb. In these verbs, the letter before the final letter is a single vowel.

Examples :
- keep – keeping, do – doing, sing – singing.
- close – closing, move – moving, share – sharing.
- fit – fitting, pin – pinning, drop – dropping.

Let us see the uses of the -ing form :
1- The -ing form of a verb, along with a helping verb, is used to form the continuous tense. It tells us that the action is in progress. The form of the main verb remains the same. Only the helping verb changes with every sentence. So, we must look at the tense of the helping verb to find out the tense of the verb.
2- The -ing form of a verb is used as an adjective to express something more about a noun, without using a helping verb. The -ing form of verbs which perform the work of adjective are called present participles.

Examples :
- Morgan is drawing a sketch.
- She was working hard.
- The setting sun looked beautiful.
- He caught the running train.

Subject-verb concord

The relation between subject and verb

Subject-verb concord

Concord refers to an agreement between two grammatical units. So, subject-verb concord refers to the agreement of the subject and the verb. The subject of a sentence is a noun, pronoun, group of nouns or a group of words acting as a noun. The subject may be plural or singular. If it is a pronoun, the subject may be first, second or third person.
If the subject is plural the verb must be plural.
If the subject is a pronoun, the verb must be in the same person as the pronoun.
Examples :
- The brothers are here.
- He loves art.

There are different rules of subject-verb concord. Let us take a look at what they are. In the case of pronouns, the third person singular (he, she, it) takes singular verbs in all tenses.
Examples :
- He works very hard.
- She has gone to London.

The rules for subject-verb concord of persons are the following :
- The first person plural “we” takes a plural verb in all tenses.
- The second “you” takes a plural verb in all tenses, even when it is singular.
- The third person plural “they” takes a plural verb in all tenses.
Examples :
- We ate our meal.
- We laeve today.
- You are coming with us.
- They mer on the beach.
- They wander the streets at night.

There is a different rule however, for first person singular “I”. “I” takes a singular verb with “am”, “am going” and “was” but takes a plural verb when we say “I go” or “I have gone”.
Examples :
- I am going to the market.
- I have gone to the market.

Where the sentence begins with “there”, the verb must agree with the real subject that follows it.
Examples :
- There is no way out.
- There are only two chairs left.

Nouns denoting food, clothing, furniture and stationery are singular. So they take a singular verb. And when we say, “a pair of …” we use a singular verb.
Examples :
- The furniture is old.
- A pair of black pants is essential.

When used for quantity, “a lot of”, “plenty of” take a singular verb. However, when quantity is given, both these take a plural verb. “News” is always in the singular.
Examples :
- A lot of time has been wasted.
- Plenty of kids are going for the picnic.
- This is great news!

If there are two subjects in a sentence, the verb will be plural. If the two subjects express one idea, then they take the singular verb. And if the subject and verb are separated by a group of words, the verb must agree with the subject.
Examples :
- Randa and Debby are best friends.
- Dal and rice is my staple meal.
- The boy with the pile of books is my little brother.

When the name of a country, a book or a film is denoted in a plural noun, it still takes a singular verb.
Collective nouns takes singular or plural nouns depending on their use in the sentence. Nouns like herd, class, crowd, etc. which refer to a group as a whole usually take a singular verb.
Nouns like people, police and cattle which refer to individuals of a group are always in the plural.
Examples :
- Chronicles of Narnia is my favourite movie.
- The crows was out of control.
- The cattle are grazing in the meadow.

Writing a paragraph using an outline

Learn to write a paragraph on a given topic or outline

Writing a paragraph using an outline

My pet
pet – goldfish – Goldie – colour – golden – orange – love my pet – beautiful fins – long tail – playful – naughty – jumps when fed – does not like to be dirty – change water twice a week.

My pet Goldie
I have a pet goldfish called Goldie. It is golden orange in colour. It has beautiful fins and a long tail. Goldie is very playful and naughty. It jumps up in the bowl when I feed it. It eats fish food. It does not like to be dirty and stops swimming when the water gets dirty. I clean it by changing the water in the bowl twice a week. I love my pet very much.

 

Learning Points

A paragraph is a group of sentences about a subject or part of the same subject. A paragraph is also called a short composition and it should start with the subject. It should not have more than eight to ten sentences. A composition may have mane paragraphs.
Before you begin writing a paragraph, you should first stop and think about the subject you are writing about. Let’s take a pet by way of example, and here are some questions you may ask yourself:
- Who is your pet?
- What is its name?
- What do you know about its habits?
- What are the things that you like or dislike about it?
- How do you take care of your pet?
To make a paragraph, write down all the ideas and points you have in one or two words to form a rough outline.
The first sentence of the paragraph should introduce the subject and tell the reader what the paragraph is all about.

The paragraph should be short (Do not have more than eight to ten sentences). To keep your paragraph short, you must not unnecessarily repeat the points or sentences.
Don’t forget to end the paragraph with a sentence that sums up the subject.

Appropriate prepositions

Grammar Lesson : Appropriate prepositions

Appropriate prepositions

A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun that shows its relation to another word in a sentence. Sometimes certain verbs, nouns and adjectives are followed by certain prepositions. These prepositions are known as appropriate prepositions. Without these appropriate prepositions, sentences will not make sense.
Let us take a look at some verbs and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : agree to, believe in, blame for, charge with, congratulate on, depend on, depend upon, insist on, part from, accept to, appoint to, object to, prefer to, abstain from, recover from, comply with, …
Let us take a look at some nouns and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : confidence in, limit to, objection to, opportunity for, pity for, alliance with, assurance of, allegiance to, obedience to, disgrace to, deliverance from, respite from, …
Let us take a look at some adjectives and their corresponding appropriate prepositions : ashamed of, blind to, charitable to, charitable towards, deaf to, different from, grateful to, grateful for, parallel to, proud of, acceptable to, accustomed to, adjacent to, accomplished in, acquainted with, conscious of, …
Examples :
- He stood under the tree.
- I do not believe in you.
- We agree to participate in the event.
- Hellen was recovered from malaria.
- This is an opportunity for growth.
- We have assurance of their continued support.
- Always have confidence in yourself.
- The boys are accustomed to loud music.
- I am grateful for your help.
- This is different from other books.

Thus, a noun, a verb or an adjective sometimes takes another appropriate preposition when it is placed in a different context.
Examples :
- I differ with you on this matter. You thoughts differ from mine.
- She does not have influence with the Director. He has a tremendous influence on her.
- Jim was proud of his son. They were proud to announce the winner.

Writing a personal letter

Friendly letter

Writing a personal letter

Writing Example

B/16 Tower street
Frosty Colony, Paris
France, 75001
December 28, 2013

Dear grandma,
I hope you are doing well. I missed you for my birthday party last week. I want to thank you for the beautiful sweater you sent me for my birthday. When I received it in the mail last week, I almost squealed in excitement.
Thank you for knitting such a pretty blue sweater for me. It is soft and keeps me warm at night, and it is in my favourite colour too! I will show it to all my friends once I go to school after the holidays.
I hope to come and visit you very soon, Grandma. I’m eagerly waiting to meet you.

Yours lovingly,
Sandy

 

Learning Points

A letter is a written or typed message addressed to a single person or a group of people. Writing letters is a meaningful way of communicating and expressing your thoughts and feelings to others. Moreover, letters can be preserved and read anytime in future. Reading such letters can bring back memories of special people or important events.
Letters can be classified into many kinds on the basis of their purpose. Letters can be friendly or formal. A friendly or personal letter is usually addressed to people you know personally or to your loved ones. On the other hand, a formal or business letter is addressed to people you do not know, people you have never met, or people who are in authority.
The address of the sender, or the person writing the letter, is written in the upper right-hand corner of the page, and can extend to two or more lines. After the last line of the address, the date on which the sender is writing the letter is included. The date can be written in full using numbers and words (December 28, 2013), or using numbers only (12/28/2013). And when writing a personal letter to a parent, close relative, or friend, whom you know very well, and who knows your address, you can omit writing the address, and only mention the date.
The salutation or greeting is written in the left-hand corner after leaving a couple of lines below the heading. The greeting usually begins with the word “Dear” before the name of the receiver or the person being written to. A comma is used after the greeting.
The body or message of the personal letter includes the main purpose of writing the letter and the message the writer wishes to convey. It includes one or more paragraphs : The first paragraph of the body usually introduces the main message and states the reason of writing the letter; The subscription or closing phrase, which is added in the lower right-hand corner of the page, after the body, and in line with the address. The first word of the subscription begins with a capital letter. Let’s see some commonly used endings : Yours lovingly, Yours truly, With love, Your friend, …
The signature refers to the name of the sender or the person writing the letter. It’s written below the closing.
A letter can be sent to the receiver either by hand or it can mailed or posted. A letter needs to be sent in an envelope. The envelope must include the name and address of the receiver in the center, the name and address of the sender in the lower left-hand corner and the postal stamp in the upper right-hand corner. The name and the title of the receiver is written on the first line, followed by the address. The receiver’s address helps the postman deliver the letter to the right person. In addition, using the sender’s address, the letter can be returned to the sender if it is lost or sent to the incorrect address.